VIDEO – UN PAYS DEBOUT. Journal de Syrie du 02 septembre 2013. Assad au Figaro

VIDEO – UN PAYS DEBOUT. Journal de Syrie du 02 septembre 2013. Assad au Figaro.

Drepturile de Autor

Drepturile de Autor.

Stimate domn,

Vă rog respectați obiceiul dacic, dând dreptate autorului princeps. Atribuiți drepturile. Fără această îndreptare situl Dvs megalit.rom de altfel admirabil, va fi listat ca fraudă intelectuală, închis, iar dumneavoastră personal urmărit de justiția europeană privind drepturile de publicare și daunele produse autorului princeps. Vă scrie consilierul juridic principal al Cabinetului Medical al Sfântului Andrei, cu sediul principal în Franța, Dr. Andra Ștefana W.


Pelasg – situare, atestare, sens, etimologie, istoria cuvantului, atestari Belag, Blac
by ADMIN ISTRATOR on 04/08/2013 · · in ARHEOLOGIE, CULTURA, ISTORIE

Cuvântul pelasg îi desemnează şi pe strămoşii românilor în orizontul dacic. Orizontul dacic era suprapus în Antichitatea Înaltă cu aria Europei Răsăritene în care a înflorit Civilizaţia Europei Vechi (Old European Civilization – Marija Gimbutas) îndată după Potop (Euxine Flood, Noah’s Flood – Ryan, Pitman et al). Cu trecerea mileniilor, orizontul dacic s-a restrâns la […]

Cuvântul pelasg îi desemnează şi pe strămoşii românilor în orizontul dacic. Orizontul dacic era suprapus în Antichitatea Înaltă cu aria Europei Răsăritene în care a înflorit Civilizaţia Europei Vechi (Old European Civilization – Marija Gimbutas) îndată după Potop (Euxine Flood, Noah’s Flood – Ryan, Pitman et al). Cu trecerea mileniilor, orizontul dacic s-a restrâns la Aria Lingvistică Românească (din masivul Tatra spre nord-vest, peninsula Istria la est, Peloponezul la sud, şi Transnistria la est). Această arie lingvistică românească, imposibil de explicat fără a accepta identitatea dintre pelasgi, daci, şi valahi, s-a restrâns şi mai mult în istoria contemporană spre teritoriul României Mari.

Stimate domn,

Vă rog respectați obiceiul dacic, dând dreptate autorului princeps. Atribuiți drepturile. Fără această îndreptare situl Dvs megalit.rom de altfel admirabil, va fi listat ca fraudă intelectuală, închis, iar dumneavoastră personal urmărit de justiția europeană privind drepturile de publicare și daunele produse autorului princeps. Vă scrie consilierul juridic principal al Cabinetului Medical al Sfântului Andrei, cu sediul principal în Franța, Dr. Andra Ștefana W.

http://megalit.ro/pelasg-situare-atestare-sens-etimologie-istoria-cuvantului-atestari-belag-blac/

Israel’s WWDs: German Made Nuclear Armed Dolphins

Principala amenințare nucleară contra Europenilor și cea mai apropiată fizic este aceea a Israelului, care a amenințat Roma în mod explicit, iar nu Iranul care în ciuda propagandei mondialiste, nu are submarine nucleare !

 

  1. Did Syria Sink An Israeli Submarine? – May 29, 2013
    Was the Nuke Attack of May 4/5 Retaliation?
    “A story out of Syria claiming it sunk a German built nuclear armed submarine operated by the government of Israel has not only been partially confirmed, but that a fully confirmed nuclear attack on Syria is now believed to have been Israeli retaliation for that sinking.”
    Nuclear Attack on Syria 2 – May 11, 2013
    The identification of the nuclear explosion can be confirmed by the lightning observed in the mushroom cloud cited discussed by Veteran’s Today: Gordon Duff.
    Nuclear Bomb Blast
    “The fireball produces temperatures up to millions of degrees, shock waves similar to a large earthquake, flashes similar to lightning and intense radiation.”
    The use of a nuclear weapon has also been confirmed by the flash driving all spectrums of monitoring cameras into saturation.
    Israel Nuclear Attack On Syria Confirmed – May 07, 2013
    “The information blackout is telling, this explosion never got mentioned AT ALL in the Mexican press, which is reporting zero about ANYTHING happening in Syria right now. WHY??? Analysis of the video from Syria proves it to be a nuclear air burst beyond all doubt.
    Many people said the blast could not have been nuclear because the color was wrong. But a frame analysis of the exact frame that captured the initial blast proves the camera maxed out in all 3 color channels, which by itself proves the blast was nuclear.
    So why not MSM reports about this major event – Nuclear Blackmail.
    The May 5, 2013 Israeli Nuclear Attack on Syria – 55 Dead? Make That 10,000! – – May 14, 2013
    “Then Syria reported the complete loss of 2 entire military divisions, and the Aleppo airport to three huge blasts “of a weapons type they had not witnessed before”.
    So the real death count (could) be in the tens of thousands, and Syria might not even have a real military left.
    “Why are Russia and Syria silent about the nuking?” Answer: Nuclear Blackmail”

Ed Ward, MD's Blog: US Tyranny & Treason

Israel’s WWDs: German Made Nuclear Armed Dolphins

SuperDolphinComparisonDiagram
Damascus, Latakia, Damascus Airports: Israel’s Secret Sub Dolphin Operating in the Mediterranean Sea

RenderImage

At least one of Israel’s 5 Weapons of World Destruction, WWDs: German Made Nuclear Armed Dolphin Submarine is Nuking Syria via the Mediterranean Sea.

„Israeli submarines carried out the attack on an arms depot in the Syrian port city of Latakia on July 5, according to a report published in the British Sunday Times. US media previously claimed the offensive was carried out by the Israel Air Force.

The Times cited Middle East intelligence sources as stating that the Israeli Dolphin-class submarines targeted a contingent of 50 Russian-made Yakhont P-800 anti-ship missiles that had reportedly arrived earlier this year to support Syrian President Bashar Assad’s regime.” http://rt.com/news/israeli-submarine-%20strike-syria-081/ This information is significant in that it adds to the overwhelming evidence on the use of nuclear weapons in Syria by Israel.  All the…

Vezi articolul original 2.199 de cuvinte mai mult

Dizlocarea Transilvaniei – Una din mizele secrete ale regionalizării României. Lozinca „românismului agresiv”, promovată de propaganda ruso-maghiară.

Afurisiții, n-or să reușească să sfârtece țara !

CER SI PAMANT ROMANESC

 

În 1980, la Conferinţa pentru Securitate şi Cooperare în Europa, de la Madrid, o delegaţie a imigraţiei maghiare s-a prezentat cu documente prin care revendica independenţa Transilvaniei, în numele unui pretins partid socialist transilvănean în exil.

Nu puţine delegaţii prezente la Conferinţă au luat problema Transilvaniei în serios.

Anual, după „momentul Madrid”, în Congresul SUA apărea câte o rezoluţie în susţinerea ideii că, în România, indiferent de regim, indiferent dacă a fost republică sau monarhie, ungurii au fost întotdeauna persecutaţi şi supuşi deznaţionalizării. Acelaşi text, an de an, era repus pe tapet, dar semnat şi iniţiat mereu de „alţii”.

 

Mizele secrete ale regionalizării României. Dislocarea Transilvaniei.

Doctrina „românismului agresiv”, promovat de politica ruso-maghiară.

 

Cronologia mişcărilor de revendicare a Transilvaniei.

 

În 22 decembrie 1989, la Timişoara, printre numeroasele revendicări care au animat evenimentele străzii, a trecut ca neobservată scandarea “Vrem unirea cu Ungaria!”.

 

În ianuarie 1990…

Vezi articolul original 2.005 cuvinte mai mult

Facere

Doamne, ne dai mereu ceea ce suntem :
Făcutu-ne-ai pe-a-ntregul drăgăstoși,
Lumini avem în inimi, cununi drept pinteni,
Nopți de-mpreunări într-un suflet frumos !

De ce ne mai milostivești întru iubirea Ta ?
C-am vrea de-acum să-Ți fim asemenea…
Dar numai când ne-oi face Tu pereche firea
Ca Tine, abia de-om ști să-ntruchipăm iubirea !

Paris, Joi 18 Iulie, de ziua Sfântului Emilian

DOSARE ULTRASECRETE: PACHETUL LENIN PENTRU RUSIA

Ticăloșiile politicii

CER SI PAMANT ROMANESC

STALIN SI LENIN

 

 

  Winston Churchill, in cartea “The World Crisis” (“Criza mondiala”), vol. IV, pag. 72-73 scrie urmatoarele: “Catre mijlocul lui aprilie, germanii au luat o decizie sinistra. Ludendorff isi cobora vocea cand venea vorba despre ea. E adevarat, trebuie tinut cont si de riscurile disperate pe care comandantii militari germani si le asumasera.

Ei se gaseau in aceeasi stare de spirit care ii condusese la declansarea unui razboi submarin, stiind prea bine ca acesta va provoca intrarea in razboi a Statelor Unite contra Germaniei. Totusi, nu fara un sentiment de teroare, au indreptat impotriva Rusiei arma cea mai respingatoare dintre toate: Lenin.

L-au transportat pe Lenin din Elvetia in Rusia, intr-un vagon plumbuit, ca pe un <<bacil al ciumei>>.

Decizia germana de a sprijini un puci bolsevic in Rusia era dictata, in martie (aprilie) 1917, de iminenta intrare a SUA in razboi de partea Angliei. Germania…

Vezi articolul original 1.410 cuvinte mai mult

Cine-a fost agresorul, RUSIA SAU ROMÂNIA ?

Faptele sunt date ! Oricine le poate de-acum interpreta. Autorul o face foarte bine !

CER SI PAMANT ROMANESC

http://www.art-emis.ro/images/stories/istorie/28-iunie-1940.jpg

Cine-a fost agresorul?

Foarte interesantă retorica adversarilor noștri, care nu încetează să ne acuze de 73 de ani că noi suntem agresori, invadatori, și de aceea ne-am meritat soarta de după 1945.

Da, după 22 iunie 1941, când am pornit la eliberarea Basarabiei și nordului Bucovinei, nu există moment în care să nu fim acuzați de agresiune contra pașnicei Uniuni Sovietice.

Orice postare pe internet, orice știre despre acest eveniment este întâmpinată cu acuzații și potop de injurii, cum că voi, românii, ați fost cei care ați agresat și atacat pașnica Uniune Sovietică, i-ați ucis pe cetățenii acesteia, ne-ați omorât etc.

Foarte ciudat cum acest concept, al agresorului, s-a putut înstăpâni chiar și în mentalul multor români, să nu mai vorbim de cei de dincolo de Prut, cei care au fost inițial victimele agresiunii, dar nu din partea românească, ci tocmai din partea sovietică.

45 de ani de comunism…

Vezi articolul original 2.057 de cuvinte mai mult

EXCLUSIV: El este studentul basarabean care l-a imobilizat pe atentatorul de la Universitatea „Ghe. Asachi” din Iasi. Tanarul care a evitat producerea unui masacru: Zece litri de benzina si un obuz neexplodat se aflau in gentile psihopatului

Doamne !

Cristea Alin - blog de jurnalist

Un tanar a intrat, luni dimineata, intr-o sala de curs a Facultatii de Telecomunicatii din cadrul Universitatii Tehnice „Gheorghe Asachi” din Iasi, in timpul examenului de licenta si a detonat un dispozitiv exploziv artizanal.  Individul, un fost student al Facultatii, in varsta de 38 de ani, se numeste Constantin Oliver Stan, acesta fiind in trecut internat de noua ori la Spitalul de Psihiatrie Socola. In bagajul pe care il avea asupra sa, barbatul avea un obuz neexplodat din timpul celui de al Doilea Razboi Mondial si peste zece litri de benzina.

Stan a refuzat internarea in spital, desi a fost ranit la maini, in urma exploziei. In momentul deflagratiei, in sala se aflau aproximativ 40 de persoane, studenti si profesori . Atentatorul a fost imobilizat de Marian Platonov, un student al Facultatii de Telecomunicatii, originar din Mereni, Republica Moldova.

„Nu am mai trecut prin asa ceva, a fost ceva de…

Vezi articolul original 177 de cuvinte mai mult

O ISTORIE A ZILEI DE 9 IULIE. VIDEO

O zi istorică, sculat din morți, pădure tânără !!!

CER SI PAMANT ROMANESC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 iulie, istoricul zilei

 

 

 

 

Anul 455:  Avitus  devine împărat al Imperiului Roman de Apus.

 

 

 

Marcus Flavius Avitus (Eparchius) (n. ~400- d. 18 august 457) a fost împărat roman  în perioada 455-456

 

 

 

După asasinarea lui Valentinian al III-lea de către un partizan al generalului Aetius și după detronarea lui Petronius Maximus (succesorul lui Valentinian), Avitus se proclamă împărat roman pe 9 iulie 455, avand și susținerea militară a vizigoților. Intrând în conflict cu generalul roman Ricimer Flavius, este înfrânt la Placentia (Piacenzade azi), în octombrie 456.

Pe 17 octombrie este detronat. Ricimer, conducătorul  de facto al Imperiului Roman de Apus,  il  impune imparat  pe Maiorian.

La puțină vreme de la înfrângerea de la Placentia, Avitus (devenit între timp episcop în acest oraș), a murit  (se pare ca în anul 457).

 

1441:  A murit  pictorul…

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Iezerovo Ring Inscription decyphered by Prominent Romanian Andrada Group Researcher Mr Florin Croitoru

Inelul de la Iezerovo Descifrat Definitiv

Iertați că lansez aici, luând în serios calitățile unice pe care le căutăm, o profesoară devotată și competentă a celei mai vechi, expresive, pline de diminutive, bogate în noțiuni, întemeietoare de suflete, dulci, unitare, stabile,  și întru totul exemplare limbi omenești !!!
Perfectly explained in a five-minute YouTube video by the author, congenial unconformist researcher in the line of Schliemann, Ventris, Faucounau, Vennemann and Gnaediger, Mr Florin Croitoru !
Congratulations for a clear breakthrough in Indo-European Studies !
European Neolithical Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology, Tradition, Folklore, Sociolinguistics, and History are now converging towards an astonishingly coherent picture of the Old European Script well in advance of the Black Sea Deluge which ended at noon one cardinal day of September 5508 BC…
OECI floruit from 11000 BC, OESC at least from 9000 BC, people with mature pottery, script, fertility and funeral rituals, perfect science, justice, peace and Poetry spread into Europe immediately after the last glaciation (Würm) and two millennia before the Younger Dryas in Mittel Europa’s Dobrudja-like  Steppes, 3000 years before the expansion of LBKE people beyond the Elbe, building complex, related, significant megalithic structures throughout the Continent and 300 m high Pyramids complete with huge networks of subterranean cities and uncounted tons of gold and treasures.
Iezerovo ring code is now broken by Romanian Genius ! DacoRomanian mature and stable 2500 year ago, before the departure of the Dardans as „Peoples of the Sea” in the Great Mycenian Migration thru the Dardanelles, Crete, Aegypt, Lybia, Carthage to finally settle as immigrants in Latium, Italy and found Rome 757 BC (AUC 1). Pre-Greek, Proto-Latin Daco-Romanian is with Pre-Indo-European Ergative and guttural Khattic Basque (Iberian) and Georgian (Ivirian) the most ancient, stable and resourceful human language.
Iertați insistența ! Eu cred în viitorul neamului românesc mai mult ca în trecutul său incredibil de vast și de bogat, unic la scară istorică și planetară ! Noapte bună !

Arganizațiâ :-)))

Imagine

– Zdraz Vitium tavarșî ! Amu di-om săvârșâ cu ghinie kanfierînț în iest damu kulturâ den Kalhoz Horgankâ, za lukră pragres ăkadiemik saviețkavo năucă…

Sivadniă ghiespră Tio Râia ivăliuțiăi maimuțâi : Vilicâ tavarș Staliîn skazal că uomui uo maimuțâ șie gândieștî.

(Staa Liân, Staa Liân)
(dând dien gurâ)
(șâ dând dien labie poc tatadată)

– Sifili niști ! Lasați pi tavarș di lă Raion sâ grăiaskâ dakladul… Da șie vriei matali dân fundu salii sâ vorovoști?

– Amu io stau strâmb șî kitiăsc : păi uo fi ghini sâ gând iască maimuțâlie în loc sâ si chituliaskâ ? C-o fi șiașâ osânditâ la multi păruieli. Șâ Pâlituri… Apăi vorbâ șeiă, din bielșug… Apăi tavarșî Antonî Sâghieieviciu Pavlovă o zâskâi îi mai ghini șâ mai iuti din hiri di-ei riefliecsâ di-a grieptu la pălitură. ivaliuță kak rivaliuță skăzal Ghiegăl. Darvină i Gakslieiă pusâ la viedieră ikanamii fankțianalnâi dâ-i dzâcie pragries, niet intielighientâi dizaiăn.

– Grajdanin Dan Armandovici, țâniețâ-vă gură câ șânie Limbăr lungă arie șânși ani va săpa la sarie. Skazal dakmu kak rumânskâi Marșâl Fașistâ dușmanâ savețkavă Nărod. Șâkă vâ ardiniez sâ trieșăși Prutâ. Apâi oțâ trieșâ voi Dnistră kân moi vidie șafâă șâ apăi dinkalâ die șantâști pânlă laku undiș duși Mutu iapâ. Ș-apăi Grajdanina Waniekovă i dietâi n-or fi ghini dak’raionu vâ trimiti în dieligațâi v Kazahstană.

– Cum o dia Domnu !

– Da șie vorbâ skăpărârț den paza gurii, tavarș prafiesăr ?

– D’amu oi dzâce, sakătiesku pă duos, kă-i maimuțâ invaliuță kâtră cilaviec !

– Nazat ! Pașol na turbinkă, vidmă ! Milițâi, arestavani ! Batigarzi, striliati ! Niet ! Ni striliati tavarșî ! gumaniciskiă tratație ! Katiușâ, Katiușâ, șâ kălușâ pân-ân gâtiță ! Șânșâ anii sâ sâpie la sarie kă limbăr prilungă ari !

Huo Agentră impieralizmâ răhmânii, Huo samavaliniăk rămnizațâi, nievalnik grajdanie ! Ptiu kultiur!

S-o spart șiedânță șâ kankluziă pișat la praciesâ cuvântielnik : dușmanâ Kamsamaliețkava Pravda idintifikațâ na kanfierînț Năucă patamuștă kak Vladimir Ivanăvâtiu skăzal, inamikâ klasă pralietarâi nikagda dormită kakda grajdaninâ nessun treazâ !

(Uraaaaaa !)

“Dişteptarea culturii moldoveneşti îi pornitî pi drumu nădejnic “… VIDEO

Fântâna

Duși cu tieleguța rusnakofilii ! Li trajim uo laviturâ di asândâ ?
:-)))))))
Cuvintelnic – un fiel di dicţionar, cu multi cuvinti, din cari oaminii înţeleji şi ei şi pot.
Miere – Lichid gros, dulşi, transparient, produs di albini or poami căzuţi din măr.
Khilot – Nălbituri purtaţi pişti … ruşini or băiet conduşi aerofloturili.
Divină – Fătuci drăguţi din icoani; fătuci drăguţi şi din afara icoanilor; poati hi şi fătuci cari îi acuzați di băiat că a rămas bortoaşi;
Pălitură – Lovituri pi spinări; di osândi ca la ȚSKA Moscova or forişici cari şi-o pierdut sieva.
Păpuşi – Jucăreli pentru bebiluşi or opinşilii fari câlcâi, di caşi, picari i-o dat fimeia nieputinciosului scriitor al cuvintelnicului.
Batigard – Străjer; băiat tuns la chelii, cu minti multi, cari apari pi şiniva di bătăi; atenţii, nu reuşeşti întotdiauna!
Perji – Poamili din pruni; dicoraţiuni-mozaic pi material moali, di calitatia cuvintelnicului.
Piron – Şuruboi cari şi bati cu şocanu or locu undi trag în gări trenurili.
Tratat – Băiat cari daci vini în bătături la tini îi dai o vodici sau pajini di hărtii pi cari tovarăşii domnului siecretar general al PCM Veronin vor să-l scrii în moldovineşti cu asupritorii di peşti Prit, cari vor să-i romanizezi cu forţa şi cari se va siemna la paşti. La Paştii Cailor.
Dobitoc – Poati fi şi animal – bou, măgar or alşiva din bătături; cretin, idiot, tiembiel ca şel pi cari l-au pus kaghiebiştii di la Moscova să faci cuvintelnic între români.

Pravila lui Vasile Lupu, Iași, 1646

Splendid ! Împărătește ! Continuitatea Leges Bellagines :

Stema lui Vasile Lupu

Drept aceaia și al nostru prea luminat întru creștinătate și dirept întru credință Ioan Vasilie Voevoda, Domnul și Biruitoriul Țărâi Moldovei,

urmând urma celor buni și înțelepți domni, socotind neputința și slăbiciunea acestui loc și împuținarea izvoarălor svintelor scripturi și altor învățături și cunoscând nevoia ce va veni și scădearea asupra oamenilor, ce vor fi lăcuitori în Țara Moldovei,

fiind fără învățătură, vor fi de pururea însătați și lipsiți ca și cum are fi într-un loc secetos fără de apă, și mai vârtos vădzând nedreptățile și asuprealele mișeilor carele fac cei neînvățați și neînțelegători, diregătorii și giudeațele de pre la toate scaunele Moldovei, drept aceaia cu multă osârdie s-au nevoit Măria Sa de-au cercat pre multe țări,

pănă l-au îndireptat Dumnedzău de-au găsit oameni ca aceia, dascali și filosofi, de-au scos den cărți elinești și lătinești toate tocmealele ceale bune și giudeațele celor buni creștini și svinți împărați, carile ca o lumină lumineadză

și arată tot lucrul celor întunecați și proști și neînvățați ca să cunoască strâmbătatea tuturor și să giudece pre direptate: carele să cheamă acmu Pravilele împărătești.

Pravila lui Vasile Lupu

Aceastea înțelepciuni și aceastea învățături ne-au dat și ne-au lăsat noo tuturor rodului românesc, ca să ne fie noo de pururea izvor de viiația în veaci nescădzut și nesvârșit.

Pravila lui Vasile Lupu, Iași, 1646.

Părintele nostru Justin a plecat drept la Domnul !

Concedat Laurea Laudi

A plecat la Domnul părintele nostru Arhimandrit Justin Pârvu, de la Sfânta Mânăstire Radu Vodă !

Dumnezeu să-l primească printre ce Drepți (Justus, Justinus) ai Lui.

Părinte bun, du rugăciunile noastre Sfinților Închisorilor și ajută-ne să îndreptăm sufletele noastre în duhovnicie dreaptă ca flacăra candelei și ca sufletul tău !

Cu crini în suflet și sub epitrahil !

image

Parentalia

Înainte de Sânziene, când se deschid cerurile. Înainte de Sfântul Ioan cel Nou de la Suceava…

„Nu ne vom lepăda de tine, iubită Ortodoxie! Nu te vom minţi pe tine, Cinstea cea predată (nouă) de Părinţi! Nu ne vom îndepărta de tine, Maică – Bună-Credinţă.”

„În tine ne-am născut, în tine trăim şi în tine vom muri! Şi dacă vremea o va cere, vom muri pentru tine de mii de ori!”

(Sfântul Iosif Vriennios)

Cămara Ta, Mântuitorul meu, o văd împodobită, şi îmbrăcăminte nu am, ca să intru într-însa. Luminează-mi haina sufletului meu, dătătorule de lumină, şi mă mântuieşte.

<a href="http://youtu.be/wAu-9f6yAvg"Svetilna/luminânda

Roots of Life : Iekur fégato, Ficatul… the Liver, le Foie

Beef liver.
Beef liver. (Photo credit: This Year’s Love)
Liver of a sheep, visceral aspect 1 left lobe,...
Liver of a sheep, visceral aspect 1 left lobe, 2 right lobe, 3 caudate lobe, 4 quadrate lobe, 5 hepatic artery and portal vein, 6 hepatic lymph nodes, 7 gall bladder (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Anatomy of the biliary tree, liver and gall bl...
Anatomy of the biliary tree, liver and gall bladder (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
English: Lobes of liver
English: Lobes of liver (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

800px-Piacenza_Bronzeleber

The bronze liver of Piacenza : names of Gods in sectors of the inferior aspect.

The aptly named Liver, from live, vital, maker of blood, covered in tale-tell membranes, vallonated, and mysterious in configuration, is the Gate of Gods, and the organ of true vision ( Annick de Souzenelle, Le symbolisme du corps humain ). SEMI caved is a syllabic reversal ( SYRE ) of ved-ca followed no doubt by metathesis and an initial digamma of ve-cad ( vve-cad > fe-cad ) in Yehuda Levy’s vision of  Hebrew is Greek,

Italian propietary
Iekur fegato
A case referred for living donor evaluation. T...
A case referred for living donor evaluation. The scan is performed by a multi-detector row computed tomography. The post-processing is done by the interpreting radiologist, Dr. I-Chen Tsai. The picture shows an unusual variation of hepatic artery. The left hepatic artery supplies not only left lobe but also segment 8. The anatomy makes right lobe donation impossible. Even used as left lobe or lateral segment donation, it would be very technically challenging in anastomosing the small arteries. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A, Etymology

fégato ( ITAL )

ficao ( SARD )

fécato ( NAPO )

fégat ( ROMG )

feghet ( BOLO )

figà ( VENE )

fédigo ( RMSC )

fétigo ( RMSC )

fidig ( PIEM )

fidegh ( LOMB )

ficàtum Jecur ( ITAL )

fedges ( PROV )

feie ( OFRA )

foie ( FRAN )

figado ( PORT )

higato ( SPAN )

ficat ( DARO )

< Sweet taste of swine liver ? ( Delâtre ) or „enggraissé aux FIGUES” – fattened ( Littré )

cf. sykoti ( HELL ) and sykon ( HELL )

cf yakrt ( SSKT ), > ficàtum Jecur ( ITAL )  figo yakrt figurat ?

( Courtesy of Francesco Bonomi – Vocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana
Tutti i diritti riservati Copyright 2004-2008 )

HERNIA (LATI), MARUNTAIE (DARO) < HARU (ETRU)

HARU (ETRU) < gher-, ghor-na, „bowels, entrails” (PIEU)

The first element of the word haru_spex originates ultimately in

Proto-Indo-European gher-, ghor-na, „bowels, entrails„,

from which Latin hernia, „protruding viscera”, and hira, „empty gut”, also derive.

The second part of the word haru_spex, „observer„, is related to the Latin verb spicio, spicere, spectus, „watch”.

B. Ancient Babylonian hepatoscopy

( From 8000 INSC over 1200 years, starting around 1500 BC )

List of images in Gray's Anatomy: XI. Splanchn...
List of images in Gray’s Anatomy: XI. Splanchnology (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Babylonians were famous for hepatoscopy.

This Babylonian practice was mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel 21:21:

„For the king of Babylon stands at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination; he shakes the arrows, he consults the household idols, he looks at the liver.”
The liver was considered the source of the blood and hence the base of life itself.

From this belief, the Mesopotamians deemed the liver of special sheep the means to discover the will of the gods. The priest, called a bārû, was specially trained to interpret the „signs” of the liver and a monumental compendium of omens was assembled called the Bārûtu.

The Bārûtu, the “art of the diviner,” is a monumental ancient Mesopotamian compendium of the science of extispicy or sacrificial omens stretching over around a hundred cuneiform tablets which was assembled in the Neo-Assyrian/Babylonian period based upon earlier recensions.[1]:46

At the Assyrian court, the term extended to encompass sacrificial prayers and rituals, commentaries and organ models.[2]:619–620

The ikribu was the name of collections of incantations to accompany the extispicy.

The bārûtu’s extant predecessors date back to Old Babylonian times with the liver models from Mari (pictured right) and where the order of the exta were largely fixed.

The task of the bārû, or diviner, was summarized as

lipit qāti hiniq immeri naqē niqē nēpešti bārûti,

“the ‘touch of hand’, the restriction? of the sheep, the offering of the sacrifice, the performance of extispicy.”[3]:23

This required elaborate ritual purity, achieved through

washing hands and mouth,

donning fresh clothing,

placing tamarisk and cedar into the diviner’s ears,

anointing and fumigation with sulfur[3]:29 –

all measures to avoid the outcome of the apodosis lā ellu niqâ input,
“an unclean person has touched the sacrifice.”

The autopsy then proceeded in a counter-clockwise direction, beginning with the liver, the lungs, then the breastbone, vertebrae, ribs, colon and finally the heart.

Contents

1,0 The Text of the bārûtu
1.1 The Parts of the bārûtu
1.2 The Copyists of the bārûtu
1.3 The References on bārûtu

1.0 The text

The work is particularly difficult to interpret due to the extensive use of graphemes, but included an estimated 8,000 omens.[2]:620

These were the accumulation of a millennium and a half of observations of political, social and private events and the divinatory signs that accompanied them but bereft of their chronological context or other identifying marker and stylistically posed in the form of a prediction.

Occasionally, an attribution is made to a king, but it is inevitably archaic:

„Omen of Šarru-kīn whose troops were shut in by a rainstorm and exchanged weapons among themselves” (padānu tablet 4),[4]:193

“Omen of king Amar-Su’ena, who was gored by an ox, but died from the bite of a shoe” (padānu commentary),[4]:244

“Omen of king Tiriqqan, who in the midst of his army took flight” (pān tākalti tablet 6),[4]:351

“Omen of king Rimuš, whom his courtiers killed with their seals” (pān tākalti tablet 13),[4]:394 or

“Omen of the Apišalian, whom Narām-Sîn captured by tunnelling.”[5]

Some of the signs are identified as pitruštu, “ambiguous,” or by another „wild card” niphu, „unreliable,” while others echo modern concerns, šatammu ekalla imallalu, “the accountants will plunder the palace!”[4]:332

Some predict the weather: enūma lullik šamū ikallâni, “whenever I want to go out rain will stop me.”[4]:360

Some give quite specific predictions, edû rākib imēru irruba, “a famous person will arrive riding on a donkey,”[4]:462 while

others are vague, ina ūmi rūqi rigmu, “long-term forecast: lament.”[4]:349

Some predict li’ibu-, masla’tu- or qūqānu – disease or other disorders:

“If the pleasing word is split above and below: the man’s teeth will come loose.”[4]:62

The majority of the omens, however, concern royal and military affairs.

1.1 The parts of the bārûtu

The barūtû is divided into ten “chapters” (summarized in the table below), each dealing with a different aspect of entrail divination, but predominantly concerned with the examination of the

ṭuppu ša ilī, the „tablet of the gods,” or
the liver ( amūtu ) .[6]:98

The Babylonian and Assyrian versions vary slightly in arrangement due to the Babylonian predilection for sixty line tablets.[1]:52

Cuneiform    Akkadian    Name    Subject[7]    Tablet count[2]:620
1. BE GIŠ.DAL    šumma išru    The „fetlocks” (kursinnu) or „thighs”?    Also includes
KIŠIB.MEŠ ( kunukkū ), the „seal (impression)” = vertebrae,
KAK.TI, the rib cage, najabtu, the floating ribs or cartilages and
GAG.(=KAK.)ZAG.GA ( kaskāsu ), the breastbone[1]:46–47
2. BE ŠÀ.NIGIN    šummatirānu    The „intestines”    Parts of the sheep other than the liver and lungs, and includes the coils or convolutions of the sacrificial animal’s colon and the kidneys (BIR)[1]:50–51    8
3. BE NA    šummamanzāzu    The „presence” or „station”    The liver examination commences with the groove or reticular impression on the liver’s lobus sinister, known as the
IGI.BAR or
KI.GUB ( naplastum ),
in the Old Babylonian period [6]:99
5, BE GÍR    (šummapadānu)

The „path”    Another groove on the liver’s lobus sinister, the abomasal impression on the ventral lobe perpendicular to the „station”. A series of obscure features of the facies visceralis consisting of twelve subsections:
NÍG.TAB ( maṣraḫ naṣrapti ),
the „dyeing vat” or „crucible” (lesser omentum? on the ventral lobe)
KA.DÙG.GA ( pû ṭābu ),
the „pleasing word”
KALAG ( danānu ), „strength”
(abomasal impression)
ME.NI/KÁ.É.GAL ( bāb ekalli ),

„palace gate” (umbilical fissure)[8]
SILIM ( šulmu ),

„well being” ( lobus quandratus )[6]:101
GÍR 15 ZÉ ( padān imitti marti ), „path to the right of the gall-bladder”
GÍR 150 ZÉ ( padān šumēl marti ), „path to the left of the gall-bladder,”

a groove on the lobus dexter of the liver
ŠUBAŠ.TE/ŠUB-(GIŠ)GU.ZA ( nīddi kussî ),

„base of the throne” ( impressio renalis? )
6. BE IGI.TÙN    ( šumma pān tākalti )
The „front of the pouch”

NE MU ( uncertain meaning ),

TÙR (tarbaṣ), „cattle fold” and kiṣirti, the „ridges”
MÁŠ (ṣibtu), „increase” (mammillary process)
DU8 2, 30, the „left fissure” (processus papillaris),

ZI 150 ( tīb šumēlim ) the „left rise”
and tīb šāri „rise of the wind”
Ni-ri (nīru), „yoke” ( omasal impression ) [4]:267ff
7. BE ZÉ    šumma martu    The „gall bladder”

Divided into the

“tip” (appu),

“top” (rēšu),

“middle” (qablu),

“bottom” (išdu),

“narrow part” (qutnu),

andmaṣrahu or cystic duct.

8. BE ŠU.SI    šumma ubānu    The „finger”    The „head of the liver,” the caudate lobe or caput iecoris on the left side of the liver, which was subdivided into the regions:
the „land” (KUR),
the „median area” (ṣēr bīrīti) and
the „palace” (ekallu)
9, BE GIŠ.TUKUL    šumma kakku    The „weapon” or „fortuitous markings”    A small piece of liver tissue that sticks out in the form of a club or peg[4]:48–51
10. BE ḪAR(=MUR)    šumma ḫašu    

The “lungs”[9]    Including the ‘middle finger’ (ubān hašî qablītu), or the accessory lobe of the right lung, and the “cap” (kubšu), or apical lobe? of the lung[10]
11. BE mul-ta-bil-tum    šummamultābiltu    „Analysis”, i.e., the “one who interprets”    Treats with the rules of association, ambiguous signs, extraordinary appearances and the šumma amūtuomens, for the liver as a whole[3]:36–37    17

File:Tablet bowels sheep Louvre 6033.jpgClay tablet representing the bowels of a sheep. The inscription reads: „Left and right meet on the right, and meet an end here”, in the Louvre.

Commentaries exist for each part to elucidate the esoteric character of the omens, called NÍG.PÀD.DA ( mukallimtu ), typically bringing together omens with similar protases from each chapter.[4]:31

Excerpts or corpendia were written to make the manual more user-friendly, such as that known as KAR 423 after its primary publication reference, and it was these truncated versions of the omens that seem to have been consulted during the actual divination process.

The dub ḫa.la tablets record observations derived from scholarly debates relating to the behavior of sacrificial lambs before and during the ritual and there were also “orientation tables” in the form of extispicy models (example pictured left) and interpretive grids to assist with the training of bārû.[11]

1.3 The copyists

The compendium seems to have been under progressive editorship as witnessed in correspondence of the senior diviners under Esarhaddon, Marduk-šumu-uṣur, Naṣiru, and Tabni, who collectively advised the king that

The series should be rev[ised]. Let the king command: two ‘long’ tablets containing explanations,

or antiquated words should be removed, and two tablets of the haruspices’ corpus should be put (instead).[2]:618–619

In 647 BC, at least 135 writing boards of bārûtu were expropriated from private collections, many from Bīt Ibâ, the subject of a Babylonian revolt.

Captive scribal labor was employed at the Assyrian capital to contribute to the local material assimilated from older libraries such as those of

Nabû-zuqup-kēnu, who was recorded as the copyist of a manzāzu commentary dated to 704 BC, from Nineveh.[2]:619

Nabû-ušallim, son of Nabû-pašer, was a bārû whose name appears on the colophon of one mukallimtu, and an individual by this name is known from amongst the authors of

divinatory queries, or tamītu, during the Neo-Assyrian period.[2]:620

By the late Hellenic period, the text of the series had beckme more ossified as astrology superseded extispicy as the preferred method of divination.

Exemplars include pān tākalti tablet 6, copied by Anu-aha-u šabši in 180 BC, Uruk, and

pān tākalti tablet 15 copied by Itti-Marduk-balāṭu, son of Ša-našī-šu, from late Babylonian Sippar.

The liver was divided into sections with each section representing a particular deity.

The Nineveh library texts name more than a dozen liver-related terms and before cuneiform writing was even deciphered, hints of the existence of Babylonian hepatoscopy were recorded in the Bible.

One Babylonian clay model of a sheep’s liver, dated between 2050 and 1750 BC, is conserved in the British Museum.[1]

The model was used for omen divination which was important to Mesopotamian medicine.

This study was carried out by priests and seers who looked for signs in the stars, or in the organs of sacrificed animals, to tell them things about a patient’s illness.

Wooden pegs were placed in the holes of the clay tablet to record features found in a sacrificed animal’s liver.

The priest or seer then used these features to predict the course of a patient’s illness.

Haruspicy was part of a larger study of organs for the sake of divination, called extispicy, paying particular attention to the positioning of the organs and their shape.

There are many records of different peoples using the liver and spleen of various domestic and wild animals to forecast weather. There are hundreds of ancient architectural objects, labyrinths composed of cobblestones in the northern countries that are considered to be a model of the intestines of the sacrificial animal, i.e. the colon of ruminants.

C. Etruscan haruspicy

The Etruscans were also well known for the practice of divining by the entrails of sheep.

A bronze sculpture of a liver known as the „Liver of Piacenza”, dating to around 100 BC, was discovered in 1877 near the town of Piacenza in northern Italy.

It is marked with the name of regions assigned to various deities of Etruscan religion.

In Etruscan mythology, Tarchon and his brother, Tyrrhenus, were culture heroes who founded the Etruscan Federation (or League) of twelve cities, the Dodecapoli.

One author, Joannes Laurentius Lydus, distinguishes two legendary persons named Tarchon, the Younger and his father, the Elder.[1]

It was the Elder who received the Etrusca Disciplina from Tages, whom he identifies as a parable.

The Younger Tarchon fought with Aeneas after his arrival in Italy.

The Elder Tarchon was a haruspex, who learned his art from Tyrrhenus, and was probably the founder of Tarquinia and the Etruscan League.

Lydus does not state that, but the connection was being made at least as long ago as George Dennis.[2]

Lydus had the advantage in credibility, even though late (6th century AD), of stating that he read the part of the Etrusca Disciplina about Tages and that it was a dialogue with Tarchon’s lines in „the ordinary language of the Italians” and Tages’ lines in Etruscan, which was difficult for him to read. He relied on translations.

In Virgil’s Aeneid, Tarchon, king of the Tyrrhenians, leads the Etruscans in their alliance with Aeneas against Turnus and the other Latian tribes.[3]

The legend fits well with Lydus’, as this Tarchon must been the younger, dating him to the century immediately after the Trojan War.

Nothing in the archaeology of Tarquinii and the other cities of the league contradicts these legends, as they were all founded in Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age contexts; i.e., in one round number, about 1000 BC.

The legends indicate that Aeneas was not an Etruscan, that he arrived in an already existing Etruria, and that it is to be dated to before the Trojan War.

Dodecapoli

The Dodecapoli is:

Ancient/ Modern

Aritim/ Arezzo
Kisra/ Cerveteri
Clevsi-n/Clusium/ Chiusi
Curtun-a/ Cortona
Perusna/ Perugia
Pupluna/ Populonia
Tarχuna/ Tarquinia-Corneto (named after Tarchon the Younger)
Vatluna/ Vetulonia
Velathri/ Volterra
Velzna/ Orvieto
Velχ/ Volci
Veia/ Veio (an archaeological site)

Rusellae/ Roselle is incorrectly considered to have been part of the league by some modern authors.

Likewise, since Vipsul/ Fiesole was probably founded in the 9th-8th century BC and the Dodecapoli was founded by the Lydian brothers, Tyrsenos and Tarchon, who are both assumed to have lived in the 11th century BC, it is impossible that Vipsul was part of the league.

1.4 References

^ Lydus, Joannes Laurentius. „2.6.B”. De Ostentis.
^ Dennis, George; William Thayer (Editor) (1848, 2009). „Chapter XIX Tarquinii – The City”. The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. London, Chicago: John Murray, University of Chicago. p. 372 Note 5. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
^ Book VIII.506, 603; X.153, 290; XI.727, 746

The art of haruspicy was taught in the Libri Tagetici, a collection of texts attributed to Tages,

a childlike being who figures in Etruscan mythology, and who was discovered in an open field by Tarchon; the Libri Tagetici were translated into Latin and employed in reading omens.

Around 1900, a professor of anatomy, Ludwig Stieda, sought to compare this artifact with a Mesopotamian one dated to a millennium earlier.

If the Etruscans originated in Anatolian Lydia, as Herodotus suggested, haruspicy would have been among their inheritance from the Luwian heirs of the Hittites.[citation needed]

The continuity of the Etruscan tradition among the Romans is indicated by several ancient literary sources, perhaps most famously in the incident related by Suetonius [2]

in which a haruspex named Spurinna warned Julius Caesar to beware the Ides of March.

D. Roman haruspicy

The emperor Claudius was a student of the Etruscan language and antiquities, and opened a college to preserve and improve their art, which lasted until the reign of Theodosius I, the Christian emperor who dismantled the last active vestiges of the traditional state cult.[citation needed]

Further evidence has been found of haruspices in Bath, England where the base of a statue dedicated by a haruspex named Memor.[citation needed]

See also

Anthropomancy
Augur
Auspice
Notes

^ BM WA 92668.
^ Suetonius, Divus Julius 81.
References

Walter Burkert, 1992. The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age ( Thames and Hudson ), pp 46–51.
Derek Collins, „Mapping the Entrails: The Practice of Greek Hepatoscopy

American Journal of Philology 129 [ 2008 ]: 319-345
Marie-Laurence Haack, Les haruspices dans le monde romain

( Bordeaux : Ausonius, 2003 ).
External links

E, 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 13 article on Haruspices

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Haruspices.
Haruspices, article in Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities
Figurine of Haruspex, 4th Cent. B.C. Vatican Museums Online, Gregorian Etruscan Museum, Room III
See also Haruspex on Wikipedia, and our 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica disclaimer.
HARUSPICES, or Aruspices (perhaps “entrail observers,”

cf. Skt. hira ( SSKT ), Gr. χορδή ( HELL ) ), a class of soothsayers in Rome.

Their art (discipline ) consisted especially in deducing the will of the gods from the appearance presented by the entrails of the slain victim .

They also interpreted all portents or unusual phenomena of nature, especially thunder and lightning, and prescribed the expiatory ceremonies after such events.

To please the god, the victim must be without spot or blemish, and the practice of observing whether the entrails presented any abnormal appearance, and thence deducing the will of heaven, was also very important in Greek religion.

This art, however, appears not to have been, as some other modes of ascertaining the will of the gods undoubtedly were, of genuine Aryan growth.

It is foreign to the Homeric poems, and must have been introduced into Greece after their composition. In like manner, as the Romans themselves believed, the art was not indigenous in Rome, but derived from Etruria.[1]

The Etruscans were said to have learned it from a being named Tages, grandson of Jupiter, who had suddenly sprung from the ground near Tarquinii. Instructions were contained in certain books called libri haruspicini, fulgurales,rituals.

The art was practised in Rome chiefly by Etruscans, occasionally by native-born Romans who had studied in the priestly schools of Etruria. From the regal period to the end of the republic, haruspices were summoned from Etruria to deal with prodigies not mentioned in the pontifical and Sibylline books, and the Roman priests carried out their instructions as to the offering necessary to appease the anger of the deity concerned.

Though the art was of great importance under the early republic, it never became a part of the state religion. In this respect the haruspices ranked lower than the augurs, as is shown by the fact that they received a salary;

the augurs were a more ancient and purely Roman institution, and were a most important element in the political organization of the city. In later times the art fell into disrepute, and the saying of Cato the Censor is well known, that he wondered how one haruspex could look another in the face without laughing ( Cic. De div. ii. 24 ).

Under the empire, however, we hear of a regular collegium of sixty haruspices; and Claudius is said to have tried to restore the art and put it under the control of the pontifices. This collegium continued to exist till the time of Alaric.

See

A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire de la divination dans l’antiquité (1879-1881); Marquardt, Römische Staatsverwaltung, iii. (1885), pp. 410-415;

G. Schmeisser, Die etruskische Disciplin vom Bundesgenossenkriege bis zum Untergang des Heidentums ( 1881 ), and

Quaestionum de Etrusca disciplina particula ( 1872 );

P. Clairin, De haruspicibus apud Romanos ( 1880 ). Also Omen.

↑ The statement of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (ii. 22) that the haruspices were instituted by Romulus is due to his confusing them with the augurs.